The leading mobile messaging apps tracked by IHS Markit had a combined user base of 6.3 billion monthly active users (MAUs) by the end of June 2018, up 12% from 5.6 billion a year earlier. The year-over-year growth rate has slowed, down from 15% over the previous 12 months and 23% over the 12 months to June 2016. All the major messaging companies continue to focus on user engagement over user acquisition, introducing new content and services to increase user‘stickiness’, while apps that have achieved a significant number of active users have also shifted their focus to monetisation.