2020 marks the start of a new year and a new decade, as well as the massive takeoff of 5G services worldwide. After more than a century, the telecommunications industry has accumulated numerous network elements that have increased operational complexity a great deal, affecting its competitiveness against web-scale companies such as Alibaba, Amazon, Apple, Baidu, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, and Tencent. Amazon, Facebook, Google, and Microsoft together spent about $83.4B in capex and capital leases for the 12-month period ended September 2019, which is close to total yearly telecom capex in North America. Web-scale companies have become notorious for spending billions every year to buy chips directly and design their own gear to power lean, agile business operations with no traditional OSS/BSS to worry about. Clients, please log in to view the full content.