More than 10 years ago, companies seeking efficiencies and automation for customer service began experimenting with applications that leveraged natural language processing (NLP). By early 2016, significant advances in combining NLP with other forms of artificial intelligence (AI), primarily machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL), began to make enterprise virtual digital assistants (VDAs) more intelligent and useful. These advancements and other market factors have expanded the use cases for enterprise AI-driven VDAs beyond customer service & marketing.